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The development history and achievements of China's iron and steel industry

  • Time of issue:2018-10-18 18:42

(Summary description)Since the birth of New China in 1949, 69 years have passed. During this period, my country’s steel industry worked hard on the ruins of the war. There were flowers and thorns along the way. It learned the painful lessons of the “Great Leap Forward” for three years. After ten years of the “Cultural Revolution”, my country The iron and steel industry has still made remarkable achievements.

The development history and achievements of China's iron and steel industry

(Summary description)Since the birth of New China in 1949, 69 years have passed. During this period, my country’s steel industry worked hard on the ruins of the war. There were flowers and thorns along the way. It learned the painful lessons of the “Great Leap Forward” for three years. After ten years of the “Cultural Revolution”, my country The iron and steel industry has still made remarkable achievements.

  • Categories:Industry News
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  • Origin:International Business Daily, Mining and Metallurgical Park, New Materials Think Tank
  • Time of issue:2018-10-18 18:42
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  Since the birth of New China in 1949, 69 years have passed. During this period, my country’s iron and steel industry worked hard on the ruins of the war. There were flowers and thorns along the way. It learned the painful lessons of the “Great Leap Forward” for three years. The iron and steel industry has still made remarkable achievements.

  69 years have passed since the birth of New China in 1949. During this period, my country’s iron and steel industry worked hard on the ruins of the war. There were flowers and thorns along the way. It learned the painful lessons of the “Great Leap Forward” for three years. The iron and steel industry has still made remarkable achievements.

  1. The planned economy period (1949-1978)

  At this stage, the development of my country's steel industry has experienced "a major transformation", "two golden development periods", "three capital construction climaxes" and "a tortuous development road."

  1. A major change: In the early days of the founding of the People's Republic of China, my country's steel industry developed under the support of the Soviet Union, and the model was also copied from the Soviet Union. In 1956, Comrade Mao Zedong published "On Ten Major Relations", proposing to proceed from reality, give full play to the enthusiasm of the central and local governments, and take the road of combining large, medium and small. This change is of great significance to my country's steel industry.

  2. Two golden development periods: the first five-year plan period (1953-1957) and the national economic adjustment period (1963-1965), during which the average annual increase of steel in my country was 800,000 tons and 1.85 million tons, respectively , Can be described as rapid development.

  3. Three capital construction climaxes: the first was during the "First Five-Year Plan" period, the construction of eight major steel projects among the 156 Soviet aid projects was carried out, and 20 enterprise reconstruction and expansion projects were also carried out; the second was in 1956 The "Three Majors, Five Middle Schools, and Eighteen Primary Schools" planned and started. The three major refers to continue the construction of the three large steel bases of Anshan Iron and Steel, Wuhan Iron and Steel, and Baotou Iron and Steel. Iron and steel plants, Xiangtan Iron and Steel, 18 small steel plants, such as Jinan Iron and Steel, Lingang, Nanjing Iron and Steel; the third refers to the third-line construction started in 1964, new steel plants such as Panzhihua Iron and Steel, and the resumption of construction of Lanzhou Iron and Steel, Jiuquan Steel has expanded Zunyi Ferroalloy Plant and so on. The development of these three capital construction climaxes laid an important foundation for the future development of the new China's steel industry.

  4. A tortuous development path: the "Great Leap Forward" in 1958, the "Cultural Revolution" in 1976, and the subsequent "Quancho" and "Foreign Leap Forward" behaviors that are out of reality and contrary to the law of the development of the steel industry, which made our country The steel industry paid a heavy price.

  2. The beginning of reform and opening up (1978-1992)

  In the past 14 years, my country's steel industry has achieved remarkable results in opening up to the outside world. The iron and steel industry has imported more than 700 advanced technologies from abroad and used more than 6 billion US dollars in foreign investment, which has greatly promoted changes in the technological structure and narrowed the gap with the world's advanced level.

  During this period, my country’s iron and steel industry’s fixed asset investment totaled 146.543 billion yuan, of which 75.972 billion yuan was invested in capital construction, accounting for 51.8%, and the renovation investment was 70.571 billion yuan, accounting for 48.2%. Steel production exceeded 40 million tons in 1983, 50 million tons in 1986, 60 million tons in 1989, and 80.93 million tons in 1992.

  3. The initial stage of the socialist market economy (1993-2000)

  This period is the stage of deepening the connotative expansion of production in my country's iron and steel industry. Its outstanding feature is to focus on "one adaptation" and implement "two transformations." "One adaptation" refers to adapting to the requirements of the socialist market economy; "two transformations" refers to the shift from developing quantity and scale to adjusting and optimizing structure, and from the long-term shortage of steel products to the control of total quantity. These two changes have greatly promoted the development of productivity in the iron and steel industry.

  In these seven years, my country’s iron and steel industry’s fixed asset investment reached 347.606 billion yuan, of which capital construction investment was 144.614 billion yuan, accounting for 41.6%, and the investment in renovation and transformation was 202.987 billion yuan, accounting for 58.4%. Steel production increased from 8954 in 1993. Ten thousand tons increased to 128.5 million tons in 2000, becoming the world's largest steel producer and consumer.

  4. Deepening reform and opening up the period of rapid national economic growth (since 2001)

  Since 2001, China's reform and opening up has entered a new historical stage, and the development of the steel industry has undergone a series of new changes.

  First of all, during this stage, the scale of my country's iron and steel industry has expanded rapidly, with steel output continuously surpassing 200 million tons, 300 million tons, and 400 million tons. In 2008, steel output exceeded 500 million tons. From 2001 to 2008, the average annual growth rate of steel production reached 20%, and its share of global steel production increased from 17.8% to 38.2%, which markedly improved its position in the world steel industry; the import and export pattern of steel products has undergone a fundamental reversal , Completely ended the history of insufficient supply of steel materials in my country.

  Secondly, my country's iron and steel industry has made significant progress in the localization and modernization of technology and equipment, and the quality of varieties has been optimized. Modern new areas including Anshan Iron and Steel, Wuhan Iron and Steel, Baotou Steel and other large old enterprises have been successively completed and put into operation, and a number of coastal modern steel bases are also under preparation.

  Finally, great progress has been made in energy conservation and emission reduction. The comprehensive energy consumption per ton of steel in key large and medium-sized iron and steel enterprises in the country has been reduced from 876 kg of standard coal to 628 kg of standard coal. This indicator means that the current comprehensive energy consumption for smelting 1 ton of steel is only 1/4 of that before the reform and opening up. , Industrial powder emissions have also dropped significantly, the quality of steel has improved significantly, and the domestic market share has increased significantly.

  In recent years, scientific and technological innovation in the iron and steel industry has achieved world-renowned achievements, and the overall level has been significantly improved. The structure of the iron and steel industry has been continuously optimized, the quality of varieties has been significantly improved, energy conservation and environmental protection have taken great strides, and scientific and technological innovations have continued to emerge.

  In terms of product innovation, the R&D and production of a large number of high-end steel products have ensured the upgrading and development of major steel industries in the national economy. Automobile steel plates developed and produced by enterprises such as Baowu, Anshan Iron and Steel, Shougang, Hegang, Maanshan Iron and Steel, Benxi Iron and Steel, etc. The high-quality oriented silicon steel developed and produced by companies such as Baowu and Shougang has ranked first in the world in terms of product quality;

  In terms of energy conservation and emission reduction, unit comprehensive energy consumption and unit main pollutant emissions have dropped significantly. In 2016, the average comprehensive energy consumption per ton of steel of steel association members dropped to 572 kilograms of standard coal, new water consumption per ton of steel was 3.52 tons, and sulfur dioxide per ton of steel The discharge amount is 0.85 kg;

  In terms of forward-looking technology, thin strip casting and rolling, thin slab semi-endless continuous casting and rolling technologies are highly valued and applied by enterprises. In terms of technology patents, as of the end of 2016, the number of valid patents in China's steel industry reached 46,600, with an average annual growth rate of 30%.

  Generally speaking, my achievements in the steel industry can be roughly summarized into the following four areas:

  1. The technological innovation of the iron and steel industry has achieved remarkable results in promoting transformation and upgrading. As a pioneer in China's supply-side structural reform, the steel industry has vigorously promoted the "three eliminations, one reduction and one supplement", with the resolution of excess production capacity as a breakthrough point, optimizing the structure, upgrading from difficulties and upgrading, and improving quality and efficiency. Take rebar as an example. After the "floor steel" is banned, high-quality long steel dominates the market, and high-strength rebar guides market consumption. At present, the production of high-strength steel bars of 400 MPa and above accounted for more than 95% of the steel association member companies, exceeding the goal of "over 80%" set forth in the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" of the steel industry. The output of high-strength shipboard has increased substantially, accounting for about half of the output of shipboard. High-end products such as electrical steel sheets, cold rolled coils, and galvanized sheets have gradually replaced imports, and the domestic market share has continued to increase. The steel industry has completely eliminated the problem of “bad money driving out good money” in the steel market for many years by removing “ground steel”, giving full play to the advantages of compliant production capacity and making users’ perception of the quality of steel products significantly better.

  2. Major breakthroughs have been made in technological innovation in the iron and steel industry, and project research and development have achieved fruitful results. At present, the steel industry has a number of products and technologies that have been launched internationally and have a significant impact. Among them, the performance of products such as yoke pole steel plates and steel plates for power station volutes developed and produced by my country has reached the world's leading level; the three series of nuclear power steels developed and produced by nuclear reactor containment, nuclear island key equipment and nuclear power supporting structural parts are the first in the world. Application in the third-generation nuclear power project CAP1400. Baowu's new ultra-high-strength steel product QP1180GA made its global debut, becoming the only steel company in the world that can simultaneously mass-produce the first, second, and third-generation advanced high-strength steels. The high-quality corrosion-resistant steel alliance for oil tankers led by Anshan Iron and Steel Group and Steel Research Group, after 4 years of research and development, not only realized the independent mass production of corrosion-resistant ship plates, but also passed the 3-year experimental verification of actual ship construction, which completely broke the foreign It also innovated the high-efficiency research and development model of “production, study, research, inspection and use” of marine steel, and achieved a major breakthrough. This team should become an excellent innovation demonstration team in the industry. From 2011 to 2016, there were 7 special prizes and 67 first prizes of the Metallurgical Science and Technology Progress Award in the iron and steel industry. These research and development results have largely resolved some of the technical bottlenecks restricting the development of the industry, and brought the overall level of the steel industry to a new level.

  3. Major breakthroughs have been made in technological innovation in the iron and steel industry, and project research and development have yielded fruitful results. At present, the steel industry has a number of products and technologies that have been launched internationally and have a significant impact. Among them, the performance of products such as yoke pole steel plates and steel plates for power station volutes developed and produced by my country has reached the world's leading level; the three series of nuclear power steels developed and produced by nuclear reactor containment, nuclear island key equipment and nuclear power supporting structural parts are the first in the world. Application in the third-generation nuclear power project CAP1400. Baowu's new ultra-high-strength steel product QP1180GA made its global debut, becoming the only steel company in the world that can simultaneously mass-produce the first, second, and third-generation advanced high-strength steels. The high-quality corrosion-resistant steel alliance for oil tankers led by Anshan Iron and Steel Group and Steel Research Group, after 4 years of research and development, not only realized the independent mass production of corrosion-resistant ship plates, but also passed the 3-year experimental verification of actual ship construction, which completely broke the foreign It also innovated the high-efficiency research and development model of “production, study, research, inspection and use” of marine steel, and achieved a major breakthrough. This team should become an excellent innovation demonstration team in the industry. From 2011 to 2016, there were 7 special prizes and 67 first prizes of the Metallurgical Science and Technology Progress Award in the iron and steel industry. These research and development results have largely resolved some technical bottlenecks that restricted the development of the industry, and brought the overall level of the steel industry to a new level.

  4. The promotion of scientific and technological innovation achievements in the iron and steel industry has been accelerated, and the application effect has been obvious. The iron and steel industry has focused on promoting a large number of advanced technologies such as technology, equipment, energy saving, environmental protection, and comprehensive utilization of resources, which have been applied in the construction of Baowu Group's Zhanjiang Base, Shangang Rizhao Base, and Shougang Jingtang Phase II. China has built 42 super-capacity top-loading coke ovens, which not only improves the technical equipment level of my country's coke ovens, but also achieves huge economic and social benefits. In the field of environmental protection, the iron and steel industry has focused on promoting closed stockyard or silo technology, blast furnace casting yard smoke control technology, coking wastewater treatment upgrading and transformation, comprehensive sewage advanced treatment technology, metallurgical slag efficient treatment and comprehensive utilization technology, etc.

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