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The difference between oriented silicon steel sheet and non-oriented silicon steel sheet

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  Silicon steel sheet
  Silicon steel, commonly known as silicon steel sheet or silicon steel sheet, is an indispensable carbon-containing ferrosilicon soft magnetic alloy that is indispensable in the power, electronics and military industries. It is also the most productive metal functional material, and its output accounts for about 1% of the world's steel output. It is a ferrosilicon alloy containing 0.8%-4.8% silicon, which is hot and cold rolled into a silicon steel sheet with a thickness of 1mm or less. · Adding silicon can increase the electrical resistivity and maximum magnetic permeability of iron, reduce coercivity, core loss (iron loss) and magnetic aging. It is mainly used as the core of various motors, generators and transformers.
 
  Silicon steel sheet classification
  Silicon steel sheets can be divided into low silicon and high silicon according to their silicon content.
 
  Low silicon wafer
  The low silicon wafer contains less than 2.8% silicon, which has a certain mechanical strength and is mainly used for manufacturing motors, commonly known as motor silicon steel sheets;
 
  2. High silicon wafer
  The high silicon wafer has a silicon content of 2.8%-4.8%. It has good magnetic properties but is brittle. It is mainly used to manufacture transformer cores, commonly known as transformer silicon steel sheets. There is no strict limit between the two in actual use, and high-silicon wafers are often used to manufacture large motors.
 
  Classified by production process
  Can be divided into hot rolling and cold rolling
  Cold rolling can be divided into two types: grain orientation and grain orientation: cold rolled sheet has uniform thickness, good surface quality and high magnetic properties. Therefore, with industrial development, hot rolled sheets have a tendency to be replaced by cold rolled sheets.
 
  Cold rolled silicon steel sheet
  The cold-rolled silicon steel sheet is divided into two types of steel strips: no orientation and grain orientation.
  The grain-oriented cold-rolled strip is usually used as a core of a motor or a welding transformer; the grain-oriented cold-rolled strip is used as a core of a power transformer, a pulse transformer, and a magnetic amplifier. The cold-rolled oriented thin silicon steel strip is made of a 0.30 or 0.35 mm thick oriented silicon steel strip which is pickled, cold rolled and annealed.
  The cold-rolled non-oriented silicon steel sheet is obtained by hot rolling a billet or a continuous casting billet into a coil having a thickness of about 2.3 mm. The cold-rolled electrical steel strip has the characteristics of flat surface, uniform thickness, high stacking coefficient and good punching property, and has higher magnetic induction and lower iron loss than hot-rolled electrical steel.
  Using a cold belt instead of a hot rolled strip to make a motor or transformer, the weight and volume can be reduced by 0%-25%. If the cold-rolled orientation belt is used, the performance is better. It can replace the hot-rolled strip or the low-grade cold-rolled strip, which can reduce the transformer electric energy consumption by 45%-50%, and the transformer performance is more reliable.
 
  Definition of non-oriented silicon steel sheet
  The non-oriented silicon steel sheet is a silicon steel sheet which is formed into a non-oriented deformed textured crystal structure according to a certain production process.
 
  Oriented silicon steel sheet
  In the early 1920s, Williams studied single crystals in ferrosilicon and obtained um=1400000 in the direction of easy magnetization axis {100}. It is considered that the {100} axis should also be excellent in multi-die plates. Performance.
  In 1926, the Japanese Bendo Mao found that the crystal orientation of iron is the easiest to magnetize, or the direction of the edge of the grain cube is the most easily magnetized direction.
  In 1934, American NP Goss developed a successfully oriented silicon steel sheet in a laboratory. He used a combination of cold rolling and high temperature heat treatment to order the crystal grains in the silicon steel sheet in the rolling direction. magnetic.
  In 1935, Goss published an article in TransAmer.Soc.Metals, introducing research results and applying for a British patent (No. 442211).
  In the same year, Armco Company of the United States began industrial production of cold-rolled oriented silicon steel sheets. In the 1940s, both Armco and Allegheny produced high-quality oriented silicon steel sheets for transformers. Armco's grade is Tran-cor (Westinghouse called Hipersil); Allegeny's grade is Silectron (GE called Corosil).
  In 1953, Japan experimented with cold rolled oriented silicon steel sheets.
  In 1958, Japan introduced the patented technology of Armco, and began the industrial production of cold-rolled oriented silicon steel sheets. Based on this, the company continued to improve and made the performance of Japanese cold-rolled silicon steel sheets reach the highest level in the world.
  In order to overcome this shortcoming, the single-oriented silicon steel sheet was inferior to the rolling direction. In the 1940s, the German vacuum melting company invented the double-oriented silicon steel sheet.
  In 1957, GE and Westinghouse of the United States also made double-oriented silicon steel sheets at the same time. In the 1960s, the Kawasaki and Bagua factories in Japan also developed double-oriented silicon steel sheets. Its magnetic properties in the rolling direction and the vertical direction are similar to those in the rolling direction of the single-oriented silicon steel sheet. The grain of this silicon steel sheet has a cubic structure.
  In 1968, Japan's Nippon Steel Plant began industrial production of high permeability magnetically oriented silicon steel sheets. Its commercial name is ”Orientcore Hi-B“, referred to as ”Hi-B“; in 1972, large lattice high magnetically oriented silicon steel was developed. In 1981, a small lattice high magnetically oriented silicon steel sheet was further developed. In 1982, Japan began to produce a high magnetic permeability oriented silicon steel sheet with surface laser irradiation treatment (ZDKH), which further reduced the iron loss.
  In 1988, Japan developed a highly magnetically oriented silicon steel sheet that was mechanically formed into a micro stress method (ADMH). See the development of Japan's Nippon Steel Corporation oriented silicon steel sheet. In the 1950s, the performance of single-oriented silicon steel sheets in several countries. · Between 1955 and 1975, the quality of Japanese oriented silicon steel sheets and non-oriented silicon steel sheets changed. From 1880 to 1970, the iron loss of the iron core steel sheet decreased.
  Relationship between non-oriented silicon steel sheets and oriented silicon steel sheets
  1. Different silicon content
  Both are cold rolled silicon steel sheets, but the silicon content is different. The cold rolled non-oriented silicon steel sheet has a silicon content of 0.5% to 3.0%, and the cold rolled oriented silicon steel sheet has a silicon content of 3.0% or more.
  2. Different production processes
  (1) The process requirements for non-oriented silicon steel sheets are relatively lower than those for oriented silicon steel sheets. The non-oriented silicon steel sheet is obtained by hot rolling a billet or a continuous casting billet into a coil having a thickness of about 2.3 mm.
  When a low silicon product is produced, the hot rolled coil is pickled and then cold rolled to a thickness of 0.5 mm.
  When manufacturing high-silicon products, the hot-rolled strip is pickled (or acidified after 800-850 °C), cold-rolled to 0.55 or 0.37 mm thick, and annealed at 850 °C in a continuous furnace of hydrogen-nitrogen mixed atmosphere. Cold rolled to a thickness of 0.50 or 0.35 mm at a small reduction of 6-10%. This cold rolling with a small reduction ratio allows the grain to grow and the iron loss to decrease during annealing.
  (2) Both of the cold-rolled sheets were finally annealed in a continuous furnace at 850 ° C in a 20% hydrogen-nitrogen mixed atmosphere, and then a phosphate-chromated insulating film was applied. After cold rolling to the thickness of the finished product, the steel strips are mostly 0.35 mm and 0.5 mm thick.
  The Bs of cold rolled non-oriented silicon steel is higher than that of oriented silicon steel. Oriented silicon steel sheets require low oxide inclusions in the steel and must contain C0.03-0.05% and inhibitors (second phase dispersed particles or grain boundary segregation elements). The role of the inhibitor is to prevent the growth of the primary recrystallized grains and promote the development of secondary recrystallization, thereby obtaining a high [001] orientation.
  The inhibitor itself is detrimental to magnetic properties, so after completion of the inhibition, it must be subjected to high temperature purification annealing. When the second phase inhibitor is used, the slab heating temperature must be increased to solid solution of the original coarse second phase, and then precipitated at a fine particle point during hot rolling or normalization to enhance the inhibition.
  The thickness of the cold rolled product is 0.28, 0.30 or 0.35 mm. The cold-rolled oriented thin silicon steel strip is made of a 0.30 or 0.35 mm thick oriented silicon steel strip which is pickled, cold rolled and annealed.
  Compared with cold-rolled non-oriented silicon steel, oriented silicon steel is much lower than non-oriented silicon steel, magnetic has strong directionality; it has superior high magnetic permeability and low loss characteristics in the easy magnetization rolling direction. The iron loss of the oriented steel strip in the rolling direction is only 1/3 of the transverse direction, the ratio of magnetic permeability is 6:1, the iron loss is about 1/2 of the hot rolled strip, and the magnetic permeability is 2.5 times that of the latter. .
  3. Different grain structure
  The oriented silicon steel grains are ordered, and the grains of the non-oriented silicon steel are disorderly arranged. Non-oriented silicon steel is mainly used in stators and rotors of electric machines, compressors, large hydro-generator units and the like. Oriented silicon steel is generally used in transformer cores and some motors.
  The requirements for silicon steel sheets for generators and transformers are the same: they all require low iron loss, good magnetization characteristics, and high lamination factor, but transformers generally use oriented silicon steel sheets. Non-oriented silicon steel sheets for generators.
  4. Performance and use are different
  Due to the different performance characteristics of the two, there are differences in the direction of use: the most important use of cold-rolled non-oriented silicon steel sheets is for generator manufacturing, so it is also called cold-rolled motor silicon steel. The most important use of cold rolled oriented silicon steel strips is in transformer manufacturing, so it is also called cold rolled transformer silicon steel.
  Silicon steel sheet performance index
  1. Low iron loss. The most important indicator of quality, the world is divided by the iron loss value, the lower the iron loss, the higher the grade, the quality is also high.
  2. High magnetic induction. A silicon steel sheet capable of obtaining a higher magnetic susceptibility under the same magnetic field, and a motor or a transformer core manufactured by the same has a small volume and weight, and relatively saves silicon steel sheets, copper wires, and insulating materials.
  3. The stacking factor is high. The surface of the silicon steel sheet is smooth, flat and uniform in thickness, and the stacking factor of the manufactured iron core is improved.
  4, good punching. This is even more important for the manufacture of small, miniature motor cores.
  5. The surface has good adhesion to the insulating film and good solderability, which can prevent corrosion and improve chipping.
  6, the magnetic aging phenomenon is small. · Silicon steel sheets must be delivered after annealing and pickling.
  1. Hot-rolled silicon steel sheet for electricians (GB5212-85)
  The hot-rolled silicon steel sheet for electricians is made of a ferrosilicon soft magnetic alloy having a low carbon loss and is hot rolled into a sheet having a thickness of less than 1 mm. Hot rolled silicon steel sheets for electricians are also called hot rolled silicon steel sheets. The hot-rolled silicon steel sheet can be divided into two types of steel sheets: low silicon (Si ≤ 2.8%) and high silicon (Si ≤ 4.8%) according to the silicon content.
  2. Cold rolled silicon steel sheet for electricians (GB2521-88)
  It is made of electrical silicon steel containing 0.8%-4.8% silicon and cold rolled. The cold-rolled silicon steel sheet is divided into two types of steel strips: no orientation and grain orientation. The cold-rolled electrical steel strip has the characteristics of flat surface, uniform thickness, high stacking coefficient and good punching property, and has higher magnetic induction and lower iron loss than hot-rolled electrical steel.
  Using a cold belt instead of a hot rolled strip to make a motor or transformer, the weight and volume can be reduced by 0%-25%. If the cold-rolled orientation belt is used, the performance is better. It can replace the hot-rolled strip or the low-grade cold-rolled strip, which can reduce the transformer electric energy consumption by 45%-50%, and the transformer performance is more reliable.
  Used in the manufacture of motors and transformers. Generally, a grain-oriented non-oriented cold-rolled strip is used as a state of a motor or a welding transformer, and the grain-oriented cold-rolled strip is used as a core of a power transformer, a pulse transformer, and a magnetic amplifier. Steel plate size: thickness is 0.35, 0.50, 0.65mm, width is 800-1000mm, length is ≤2.0m.
  3. Hot rolled silicon steel sheet for household appliances (GBH46002-90)
  The grade of the hot-rolled silicon steel sheet for home appliances is represented by J (home) D (electricity) R (hot rolling), that is, JDR. The number after the JDR is the iron loss value *100, and the number after the horizontal line is the thickness of the steel plate (mm) * 100. The hot-rolled silicon steel sheet for home appliances has a slightly lower electromagnetic performance requirement, and the lowest value of iron loss (P15/50) is 5.40 W/kg. Usually not delivered with a wash.
  It is used in differential motors for household appliances such as electric fans, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, range hoods, etc.
  There are two ways to identify the orientation of steel sheet
 
  Eye observation
  Oriented silicon steel sheet is grayish white;
  2. Folding method
  Take a piece of silicon steel sheet and fold it twice by hand. If there is an orientation, it will lose grayish white slag, and it will break when it is folded two or three times repeatedly. It is difficult to break the non-oriented steel sheet.