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The development history and achievements of China's steel industry

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  Since the birth of New China in 1949, it has passed the 69th Spring and Autumn Period. During this period, China's iron and steel industry ran hard on the ruins of the war. There were both flowers and thorns along the way, and learned the painful lessons of the ”Great Leap Forward“ for three years. After ten years of the ”Cultural Revolution“, after the baptism of the country, China The steel industry has still achieved remarkable achievements.
  Since the birth of New China in 1949, it has passed the 69th Spring and Autumn Period. During this period, China's iron and steel industry ran hard on the ruins of the war. There were both flowers and thorns along the way, and learned the painful lessons of the ”Great Leap Forward“ for three years. After ten years of the ”Cultural Revolution“, after the baptism of the country, China The steel industry has still achieved remarkable achievements.
 
  I. Planned economy period (1949-1978)
  At this stage, the development of China's steel industry has experienced ”a major transformation“, ”two golden development periods“, ”three basic construction climaxes“ and ”a tortuous development path.“
  1. A major change: In the early days of the founding of the People's Republic of China, China's steel industry developed with the support of the Soviet Union, and the model was also copied from the Soviet Union. In 1956, Comrade Mao Zedong published ”On the Ten Major Relations,“ proposing to proceed from reality and give full play to the enthusiasm of the central and local governments, taking the road of combining large, medium and small. This transformation is of great significance to China's steel industry.
  2. Two gold development periods: the first five-year plan period (1953-1957) and the national economic adjustment period (1963-1965), during which China's annual steel production increased by 800,000 tons and 1.85 million tons respectively. It can be said to develop rapidly.
  3. Three climaxes of capital construction: The first time was the construction of the eight major steel projects in the Soviet Union's 156 aid projects during the ”First Five-Year Plan“ period. At the same time, 20 enterprises were rebuilt and expanded; the second was 1956. Planning and starting construction of the ”three big, five middle, eight small“, the three major refers to the construction of three large steel bases of Anshan Iron and Steel, Wuhan Iron and Steel, Baotou Steel, the extension of the five middle finger, the new Taigang, Chongqing Iron and Steel, Ma Steel, Shijingshan Steel mills, Xianggang, 18 small-sized steel mills such as Jigang, Linfen and Nangang; the third refers to the third-line construction started in 1964, the construction of steel plants such as Panzhihua Iron and Steel, and the restoration of Lanzhou Steel. Jiugang, expanded Zunyi Ferroalloy Factory and so on. The development of these three basic construction climes has laid an important foundation for the future development of the new China steel industry.
  4. A path of tortuous development: the ”Great Leap Forward“ in 1958, the ”Cultural Revolution“ in 1976, and the subsequent ”faults“ and ”foreign leaps into progress“, which deviated from reality and violated the laws governing the development of the steel industry. The steel industry has paid a heavy price.
  Second, the beginning of reform and opening up (1978-1992)
  In the past 14 years, China's steel industry has achieved remarkable results in opening up to the outside world. The iron and steel industry has introduced more than 700 advanced technologies from abroad, and the use of foreign capital of more than 6 billion US dollars has greatly promoted the changes in technological structure and narrowed the gap with the world's advanced level.
  During this period, China's steel industry fixed assets investment totaled 146.543 billion yuan, of which capital construction investment was 75.972 billion yuan, accounting for 51.8%, and renovation and transformation investment was 70.571 billion yuan, accounting for 48.2%. In 1983, steel output exceeded 40 million tons. In 1986, it exceeded 50 million tons. In 1989, it exceeded 60 million tons. In 1992, it reached 80.93 million tons.
  Third, the early stage of the socialist market economy (1993-2000)
  This period is the stage in which China's steel industry deepens its connotative expansion of production. Its outstanding feature is to focus on ”one adaptation“ and implement ”two transformations“。 ”One adaptation“ refers to the requirements of adapting to the socialist market economy; ”two transformations“ refers to the shift from the scale of development to the adjustment and optimization of structure, from the long-term shortage of steel products to the total control. These two changes have greatly promoted the development of the productivity of the steel industry.
  In these seven years, China's iron and steel industry fixed assets investment reached 347.06 billion yuan, of which capital construction investment was 144.614 billion yuan, accounting for 41.6%, renovation and transformation investment 202.987 billion yuan, accounting for 58.4%; steel production from 1993, 8954 The number of tons increased to 128.5 million tons in 2000, making it the world's largest steel producer and consumer.
  Fourth, deepen reform and expand the period of rapid growth of the national economy (since 2001)
  Since 2001, China's reform and opening up has entered a new historical stage, and the development of the steel industry has undergone a series of new changes.
  First of all, in this stage, the scale of China's steel industry has expanded rapidly, and steel output has continuously exceeded 200 million tons, 300 million tons, and 400 million tons. In 2008, steel production exceeded 500 million tons. From 2001 to 2008, the annual growth rate of steel output reached 20%, and the proportion of global steel production increased from 17.8% to 38.2%. The status of the world steel industry has increased significantly; the import and export pattern of steel products has undergone a fundamental reversal. It completely ended the history of insufficient supply of steel materials in China.
  Secondly, China's steel industry has made significant progress in the localization and modernization of its technical equipment, and its quality has been optimized. The modernized new areas of large-scale old enterprises such as Anshan Iron and Steel, Wuhan Iron and Steel, Baotou Steel, etc. have been built and put into operation, and a number of coastal modern steel bases are also under construction.
  Finally, energy conservation and emission reduction have made great progress. The comprehensive energy consumption per ton of steel of the national key large and medium-sized iron and steel enterprises has dropped from 876 kg of standard coal to 628 kg of standard coal. This indicator means that the current comprehensive energy consumption of smelting 1 ton of steel is only 1/4 of that before the reform and opening up. Industrial powder emissions have also fallen sharply, steel quality has improved significantly, and domestic market share has increased significantly.
  In recent years, the scientific and technological innovation of the steel industry has achieved remarkable achievements, and the overall level has been significantly improved. The structure of the steel industry has been continuously optimized, the quality of the products has been significantly improved, and energy conservation and environmental protection have taken a big step, and technological innovations have emerged.
  In product innovation, a large number of high-end steel products research and development production guarantees the upgrading and development of the major steel industries in the national economy, and the steel plates for research and development produced by Baowu, Angang, Shougang, Hegang, Maanshan, Benben and other enterprises. High-quality oriented silicon steel developed and produced by Baowu, Shougang and other enterprises, the product quality has entered the international first phalanx;
  In terms of energy conservation and emission reduction, the unit's comprehensive energy consumption and unit main pollutant emissions have dropped significantly. In 2016, the average energy consumption per ton of steel of steel association members fell to 572 kg of standard coal, and the new water consumption per ton of steel was 3.52 tons. The emission is 0.85 kg;
  In the forward-looking technology, technologies such as thin strip casting and thin slab semi-headless continuous casting and rolling have been highly valued and applied by enterprises. In terms of technology patents, as of the end of 2016, the number of valid patents in the Chinese steel industry reached 46,600, with an average annual growth rate of 30%.
 
  Overall, my achievements in the steel industry can be roughly summarized into the following four aspects:
  1. The scientific and technological innovation of the steel industry has promoted the transformation and upgrading effect. As the forerunner of China's supply-side structural reform, the iron and steel industry has vigorously promoted ”three to one, one reduction and one supplement“ to resolve excess capacity as a breakthrough, optimize structure, upgrade from difficulties, improve quality and efficiency. Taking rebar as an example, after the ”strip steel“ was banned, high-quality long products dominated the market, and high-strength rebar led the market. At present, the output of high-strength steel bars of 400 MPa and above in steel association members accounted for more than 95%, exceeding the target of ”over 80%“ proposed by the ”12th Five-Year Plan“ of steel. The output of high-strength ship plates has increased significantly, accounting for about half of the ship's production. High-end products such as electrical steel sheets, cold rolled coils, and galvanized sheets are gradually replacing imports, and the domestic market share continues to increase. By eliminating the ”strip steel“, the steel industry completely eliminated the problem of ”bad money driving out good money“ in the steel market for many years, and exerted the advantage of compliance production capacity, so that users' perception of the quality of steel products was obviously better.
  2. The steel industry has made major breakthroughs in scientific and technological innovation, and the project research and development has achieved fruitful results. At present, the steel industry has a number of internationally launched products and technologies that have a major impact. Among them, the performance of yoke magnetic pole steel plates and steel plates for power plant volutes developed and produced in China has reached the world's leading level; the nuclear reactor safety shell, nuclear island key equipment and nuclear power supporting structural parts developed and produced in the world's first series of nuclear power steel The application was implemented in the third-generation nuclear power project CAP1400. Baowu ultra-high-strength steel new product QP1180GA is the world's first to become the world's only steel enterprise capable of mass production of the first, second and third generation advanced high-strength steel. After four years of research and development, Angang, Steel Research Group and other high-quality corrosion-resistant steel alliances have not only achieved independent mass production of corrosion-resistant ship plates, but also passed the three-year actual ship construction test verification, completely breaking foreign countries. The monopoly, and the innovative high-efficiency research and development model of marine steel for production, education and inspection, has achieved a major breakthrough. This team should be an excellent innovation demonstration team in the industry. From 2011 to 2016, the steel industry had a total of 7 special prizes for metallurgical science and technology progress awards and 67 first prizes. These research and development achievements have largely solved some technical bottlenecks that restrict the development of the industry, and the overall level of the steel industry has reached a new level.
  3. The steel industry has made major breakthroughs in scientific and technological innovation, and the project research and development has achieved fruitful results. At present, the steel industry has a number of internationally launched products and technologies that have a major impact. Among them, the performance of yoke magnetic pole steel plates and steel plates for power plant volutes developed and produced in China has reached the world's leading level; the nuclear reactor safety shell, nuclear island key equipment and nuclear power supporting structural parts developed and produced in the world's first series of nuclear power steel The application was implemented in the third-generation nuclear power project CAP1400. Baowu ultra-high-strength steel new product QP1180GA is the world's first to become the world's only steel enterprise capable of mass production of the first, second and third generation advanced high-strength steel. After four years of research and development, Angang, Steel Research Group and other high-quality corrosion-resistant steel alliances have not only achieved independent mass production of corrosion-resistant ship plates, but also passed the three-year actual ship construction test verification, completely breaking foreign countries. The monopoly, and the innovative high-efficiency research and development model of marine steel for production, education and inspection, has achieved a major breakthrough. This team should be an excellent innovation demonstration team in the industry. From 2011 to 2016, the steel industry had a total of 7 special prizes for metallurgical science and technology progress awards and 67 first prizes. These research and development achievements have largely solved some technical bottlenecks that restrict the development of the industry, and the overall level of the steel industry has reached a new level.
  4. The promotion of scientific and technological innovations in the iron and steel industry has been accelerated, and the application effect is obvious. The steel industry has promoted a large number of advanced technologies such as technology, equipment, energy conservation, environmental protection, and comprehensive utilization of resources. It has been applied in the construction of Baowu Group Zhanjiang Base, Shangang Rizhao Base, and Shougang Jingtang Phase II. 42 large-capacity top-mounted coke ovens have been built in China, which not only improved the level of coke oven technology and equipment in China, but also achieved great economic and social benefits. In the field of environmental protection, the steel industry has mainly promoted closed stockyard or silo technology, blast furnace tapping and dust control technology, coking wastewater treatment and upgrading, comprehensive sewage advanced treatment technology, metallurgical slag efficient treatment and comprehensive utilization technology.